Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone, a rare but serious condition. Bones can become infected in a number of ways: Infection in one part of the body may spread through the bloodstream into the bone, or an open fracture or surgery may expose the bone to infection. A total of 394 patients (307 males and 87 females) were included, giving a gender ratio of 3.53. The median age at first diagnosis was 42 years for all. The most frequent type was traumatic osteomyelitis (262 cases, 66.50%), which was mainly caused by open injury (166 cases, 63.36%) and during a road accident (91 cases, 34.73%). Single-site infection accounted for 81.98% (323 cases), with tibia (126 cases), femur (79 cases), calcaneus (37 cases), and toes (37 cases) as the top sites. The positive rate of intraoperative culture was 70.63% (214/303), 78.97% (169/214) of which was monomicrobial infection.
The most frequently used intravenous antibiotic was cephalosporins. The overall cure rate was 77.74%, with a total amputation rate of 16.75%. If any constitutional findings (eg, fever, malaise, weight loss) persist or if large areas of bone are destroyed, necrotic tissue is debrided surgically. Surgery may also be needed to drain coexisting paravertebral or epidural abscesses or to stabilize the spine to prevent injury. Skin or pedicle grafts may be needed to close large surgical defects. Broad-spectrum antibiotics should be continued for > 3 wk after surgery. Long-term antibiotic therapy may be needed.