A stress fracture is an overuse injury. It occurs when muscles become fatigued and are unable to absorb added shock. Eventually, the fatigued muscle transfers the overload of stress to the bone causing a tiny crack called a stress fracture. Stress fractures often are the result of increasing the amount or intensity of an activity too rapidly. They also can be caused by the impact of an unfamiliar surface (a tennis player who has switched surfaces from a soft clay court to a hard court); improper equipment (a runner using worn or less flexible shoes); and increased physical stress (a basketball player who has had a substantial increase in playing time). Most stress fractures occur in the weight bearing bones of the lower leg and the foot. More than 50 percent of all stress fractures occur in the lower leg. Pain with activity is the most common complaint with a stress fracture. This pain subsides with rest. It is very important that during the medical examination the doctor evaluates the patient's risk factors for stress fracture. The number of in-patient discharges and deaths due to pneumonia continued to rise gradually in recent years.
In 2013, 55,010 in-patient discharges and deaths were related to pneumonia, accounting for 2.8% of all in-patient discharges and deaths. Pneumonia was the second leading cause of death in 2013. An increasing trend was observed in the number of deaths and death rate since 2002. In 2013, the number of deaths were 6,830, accounting for 15.7% of all registered deaths. The death rates for male and female were 110.8 and 81.4 per 100,000 population of respective sex. The age-standardized death rate due to pneumonia was stable in recent few years. In 2013, the age-specific death rates due to pneumonia increased markedly after age 65. In general, males had higher death rates than females. X-rays are commonly used to determine stress fracture. Sometimes, the stress fracture cannot be seen on regular x-rays or will not show up for several weeks after the pain starts.
Occasionally, a computed topography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be necessary. The most important treatment is rest. Individuals need to rest from the activity that caused the stress fracture, and engage in a pain-free activity during the six to eight weeks it takes most stress fractures to heal .If the activity that caused the stress fracture is resumed too quickly, larger, harder-to-heal stress fractures can develop. Re-injury also could lead to chronic problems where the stress fracture might never heal properly. In addition to rest, shoe inserts or braces may be used to help these injuries heal. Major Research is been done in Germany by The Chinese Institute of Hong Kong- Department of Microbiology.