Stuttering is an interruption of the normal flow of speech, which takes on many different patterns. Commonly, it involves either saying a string of repeated sounds or making abnormal pauses during speech. In early childhood, stuttering is sometimes part of normal speech development. In fact, about 5% of all young children go through a brief period of stuttering when they are learning to talk. Stuttering typically is first noticed between the ages of 2 and 5. It usually goes away on its own within a matter of months. In a small number of children (around 1%), stuttering continues and may get worse. Boys are more likely to stutter than girls.
In addition, normal problems with fluency tend to come and go, or happen only at certain times (such as when a child is tired or excited), but true stuttering is present most of the time. Once a child begins to stutter, he or she may feel embarrassed, self-conscious or anxious when asked to speak. The child may find it hard to socialize with friends and also may intentionally avoid situations where talking is expected, such as telephone calls, classroom discussions and school plays.
The number of in-patient discharges and deaths due to pneumonia continued to rise gradually in recent years. In 2013, 55,010 in-patient discharges and deaths were related to pneumonia, accounting for 2.8% of all in-patient discharges and deaths. Pneumonia was the second leading cause of death in 2013. An increasing trend was observed in the number of deaths and death rate since 2002. In 2013, the number of deaths were 6,830, accounting for 15.7% of all registered deaths.