Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare, life-threatening acute, non-contagious systemic illness characterised by high fever, hypotension, rash, multi-organ dysfunction, and cutaneous desquamation caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection. The most common TSS toxins are toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and staphylococcal enterotoxin B.TSS is a very rare illness. Women who are menstruating orpostpartum or using barrier contraceptives, postoperative patients, patients with chemical or thermal burns are at a higher risk of developing TSS.
Patients with TSS must be treated immediately and aggressively. Early and immediate treatment should including fluid resuscitation, empirical antibiotic therapy should be done. In case of unconfirmed suspected TSS broad spectrum antibiotics like clindamycin+carbapenem/beta-lactamase inhibitor/vancomycin must be administered. Intravenous immunoglobulins can also be used.Research in the 1980’s suggested that for cases which occurred in women using tampons, tampon absorbency was a factor. Women should be advised to use a tampon with the lowest absorbency suitable during menstruation.