Typhus is an acute febrile illness with more than one form. It is caused by rickettsial infection, which is endemic in many parts of the world, and is acquired via lice and fleas from other humans and small mammals such as rats, cats and squirrels (most commonly rats).In scrub typhus, an eschar approximately 5 to 20 mm in diameter is formed at the site bitten by trombiculid mites, and this may be considered the most important clinical finding for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. The site bitten by chiggers is initially a papule followed by a blistered ulcer, and this is then covered with a black crust; the border of the eschar is surrounded by reddish erythema.
In the China, about 40,652 cases of Typhus fever are reported in each year. Almost 14% of the China population is suffering with Typhus fever, a disease caused by bacteria called Rickettsia typhi or bacteria called Rickettsia felis.The best way to prevent typhus infections is to minimize exposure to the ectoparasite vectors and rodents which may carry infected fleas. This includes the use of personal insect repellents and self-examination of the skin after visits to vector-infested areas. Wearing protective clothing impregnated with tick-repellent when in the bush further reduces the risk of tick and mite bites.