Pharmacology is a branch of science that deals with the scientific research involved in the characterization of chemicals which show biological effects; and the further elucidation of cellular and organism function in relation to these chemicals. These chemicals are generally termed as drugs and pharmacology is primarily concerned with the study of these drug actions. A drug can be broadly defined as any artificial, natural, or an endogenous molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, system, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. The field of pharmacology encompasses drug composition and its properties, drug synthesis and its design, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ or systems mechanisms, signal transduction or cellular interactions, molecular diagnostics, toxicology studies, chemical biology, and medical applications. The two main areas of pharmacological studies include pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics deals with the studies of the effects of the drug on biological systems, and pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on the drug. In broad senses, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological reception, and pharmacokinetics further discusses the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) of those chemicals from the biological systems. Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
Last date updated on April, 2021