1. Renewable Energy
Sustainable Energy or Green Energy is derived from non-conventional energy which is continuously replenished by natural processes. Renewable Energy has attracted a lot of attention in the recent past owing to exhaustion of fossil fuels and in the lookout for alternate energy for a clean and green future. Various forms of renewable energy include solar energy, wind energy, hydro energy, geothermal energy, wave and tidal energy. Based on REN21's 2014 report, renewables contributed 19 percent to our energy consumption and 22 percent to our electricity generation in 2012 and 2013. Renewable power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. Today the renewable energy sector is already providing more than 450,000 jobs and has an annual turnover exceeding 45 billion Euros. Since 2009, 25 solar projects totalling more than 8,000 megawatts, and 9 wind projects totalling more than 4,000 megawatts, have been approved on public lands in the U.S. That’s enough electricity to power nearly 4 million American homes.
The global renewable energy market (excluding biofuels) reached $432.7 billion in 2013 and $476.3 billion in 2014. This market is expected to increase to $777.6 billion in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.3% from 2014 to 2019.
Prior to the development of coal in the mid-19th century, nearly all energy used was renewable. The IEA 2014 World Energy Outlook projects a growth of renewable energy supply from 1,700 gigawatts in 2014 to 4,550 gigawatts in 2040. In 2013 wind generated almost 3% of the world’s total electricity while hydropower generated almost 16% of the world’s total electricity. Modern utility-scale wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use. Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, concentrated solar power, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis. In 2013 solar generated less than 1% of the world’s total grid electricity while Biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's transport fuel in 2010.
- Wind energy
- Solar Energy
- Hydroelectric energy
- Geothermal Power
- Biomass Conversion
- Hydrogen and Fuel cells
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