Advanced Cytopathology

Cytology is a key component in diagnosis and screening of diseases such as cancer. It assesses single cells and clusters of cells from sources such as malignant effusions and peripheral blood. Effusions are fluids that leak from blood and lymph vessels and aggregate in tissues and cavities within the body. This is a common problem in cancer patients and can be a reservoir of malignant cells. However, the total number of cells in effusions is small in comparison to the volumes of fluids that are produced. Therefore, in order to collect these cells for evaluation, they must be concentrated. Gynecologic cytology, also gynecologic cytopathology, is a field of pathology concerned with the investigation of disorders of the female genital tract. The most common investigation in this field is the Pap test, which is used to screen for potentially precancerous lesions of the cervix. Cytology can also be used to investigate disorders of the ovaries, uterus, vagina and vulva. A survey was conducted among 130 New York State (NYS) registered cytology laboratories to better understand current and future changes in the practice of cytology, changes in the cytotechnologist (CT) scope of practice, and the future need for CTs. A 51.5% (67/130) response rate was obtained. Trends for gynecologic case volume varied across facility types. Nongynecologic volume is growing primarily in hospitals and large medical center laboratories and private laboratories; the fine-needle aspiration volume is growing in hospital and large medical center laboratories. One third of responding laboratories anticipate a continued demand for CTs within the next 3 years owing to impending retirements. Few laboratories also report the gradual adoption of molecular testing with CTs directly involved. Because 60% (3/5) of NYS CT training programs have closed since 2008, the 2 remaining programs are a valuable key staffing resource for CTs. Continued viability of these programs is essential to provide the necessary training and staffing of NYS laboratories for cytopathology practice.
  • Gynecology Cytology
  • Recent Advances in Tissue Engineering
  • Clinical pathology and chemotherapy
  • Role of Immunocytochemistry in Diagnostic Cytology
  • Stem cell potential & Differentiation

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