Advances in Antimicrobials, Vaccines and Therapeutics

Anti-microbial is the agent that kills or restricts the bacterial growth. To fight against the potential bacteria now-a-days, the manufacturing companies are coming up with more advanced anti-microbial liquids/soaps/sanitizers. Immunization/Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to date, saving millions of lives1 and protecting countless children from illness and disability. As a direct result of immunization, polio is on the verge of eradication. Deaths from measles, a major child killer, declined by 71 per cent worldwide and by 80 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2011.2 And 35 of 59 priority countries have eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus. Immunization has not yet realized its full potential, however. As of end-2013, 21.8 million children under 1 year of age worldwide had not received the three recommended doses of vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis containing vaccine (DTP3), and 21.6 million children in the same age group had failed to receive a single dose of measles-containing vaccine. Given an estimated annual cohort of 133.6 million surviving infants, an additional 11.2 million children would need to have been reached during 2013 to attain 90% DTP3 coverage globally. In the spring of 2009, a new flu virus spread quickly across the United States and the world. The first U.S. case of H1N1 (swine flu) was diagnosed on April 15, 2009. By April 21, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was working to develop a vaccine for this new virus. On April 26, the U.S. government declared H1N1 a public health emergency. By June, 18,000 cases of H1N1 had been reported in the United States. A total of 74 countries were affected by the pandemic. H1N1 vaccine supply was limited in the beginning. People at the highest risk of complications got the vaccine first. By November 2009, 48 states had reported cases of H1N1, mostly in young people. That same month, over 61 million vaccine doses were ready. Reports of flu activity began to decline in parts of the country, which gave the medical community a chance to vaccinate more people. 80 million people were vaccinated against H1N1, which minimized the impact of the illness. The CDC estimates that 43 million to 89 million people had H1N1 between April 2009 and April 2010. They estimate between 8,870 and 18,300 H1N1 related deaths. On August 10, 2010 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared an end to the global H1N1 flu pandemic. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world’s deadliest diseases: One third of the world’s population is infected with TB. In 2013, 9 million people around the world became sick with TB disease. There were around 1.5 million TB-related deaths worldwide. TB is a leading killer of people who are HIV infected. A total of 9,582 TB cases (a rate of 3.0 cases per 100,000 persons) were reported in the United States in 2013. Both the number of TB cases reported and the case rate decreased; this represents a 3.6% and 4.3% decline, respectively, compared to 2012. Measles Outbreaks Outbreaks in countries to which Americans often travel can directly contribute to an increase in measles cases in the U.S. Reasons for an increase in cases some years: 2015: The United States experienced a large, multi-state measles outbreak linked to an amusement park in California. The outbreak likely started from a traveler who became infected overseas with measles, then visited the amusement park while infectious; however, no source was identified. Analysis by CDC scientists showed that the measles virus type in this outbreak (B3) was identical to the virus type that caused the large measles outbreak in the Philippines in 2014. 2014: The U.S. experienced 23 measles outbreaks in 2014, including one large outbreak of 383 cases, occurring primarily among unvaccinated Amish communities in Ohio. Many of the cases in the U.S. in 2014 were associated with cases brought in from the Philippines, which experienced a large measles outbreak. In 2014, 1,151 people in the United States have been reported to have mumps. Since November 2014, CDC has received reports of people with mumps, who are affiliated with professional hockey teams. CDC is working with the states affected, as they conduct public health investigations. In 2013, 438 people from 39 states in the U.S. were reported to have mumps.
  • Measles and mumps
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Dengue and swine flu
  • Yellow fever
  • Coinfections
  • Therapeutics of infectious diseases
  • Pneumococcal vaccine
  • Anthrax vaccine
  • Antibiotics and Therapeutics
  • Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases

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Advances in Antimicrobials, Vaccines and Therapeutics Conference Speakers