Alzheimer’s Disease Pathophysiology and Disease Mechanisms

Alzheimer’s sickness may be a progressive insanity with loss of neurons and therefore the presence of 2 main microscopic neuropathological hallmarks: extracellular amyloid plaques and living thing neurofibrillary tangles. Early onset AD, a rare familial type, is caused because of mutation of 1 out of 3 genes: (amyloid precursor protein), (presenilin 2) or (presenilin 1). scattered type happens typically once age of 65 and accounts for many cases; it presumably results from a mix of genetic and influence of atmosphere. Confirmed risk factors for scattered AD age and therefore the presence of the E4 factor of (Apo compound protein E). Amyloid plaques comprise primarily of the toxin amide amyloid (Aβ, Abeta), cleaved consecutive from a bigger precursor macromolecule (APP) by 2 enzymes: β-secretase (also referred to as BACE1) and γ-secretase (comprising four proteins, presenilin is one among them). If APP is initial cleaved by the protein α-secretase instead of β-secretase then Aβ isn't shaped. Neurofibrillary tangles comprise primarily of the macromolecule letter of the alphabet that binds with microtubules, that facilitating the vegetative cell transport system. letter of the alphabet uncoupling from tubules and aggregation into tangles inhibits transport and ends up in dismantling of microtubule. Phosphorylation of letter of the alphabet might need a vital role during this. Selective vulnerability of vegetative cell systems like the cholinergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic and glutamatergic systems type the idea of current rational medicine treatment.


  • Stem cells and Cell death
  • Cellular signaling, kinases, phosphatases, calcium
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
  • Tau Pathology of Alzheimers Disease
  • Pathogenesis of Alzheimers Disease

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