Anatomy and Physiology of Diabetes

Pathophysiologic alteration is a change in function as distinguished from a structural defect. Diabetes occurs when there is a dis-balance between the demand and production of the hormone insulin. Pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is that in this condition the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. There is beta cell deficiency leading to complete insulin deficiency. Whereas in diabetes type 2 there is relative deficiency of insulin and not an absolute deficiency. This means that the body is unable to produce adequate insulin to meet the needs. There is Beta cell deficiency coupled with peripheral insulin resistance. Third type of diabetes is gestational diabetes. It is caused when there are excessive counter-insulin hormones of pregnancy. This leads to a state of insulin resistance and high blood sugar in the mother. There may be defective insulin receptors.

 

Understanding diabetes, requires an effective grasp on the body parts involved. When a patient is diagnosed with this disease, what exactly is happening.The pancreas is an organ that stretches partway across the abdomen, just below the stomach. Because its main functions are to aid digestion and produce hormones that control blood glucose levels, the pancreas is a focal point for understanding diabetes.

  • Physiology of the endocrine pancreas
  • Alpha and Beta cells
  • Physiology of Diabetes Type 1
  • Physiology of Diabetes Type 2
  • Pathophysiology of hypoglycemia
  • Epidemology and pathogenesis of diabetes
  • Diabetes and metabolic syndrome
  • Diabetic myelopathy
  • Pathogenesis of diabetes
  • Recent advances in genetics of diabetes
  • The Role of Incretins in Insulin Secretion

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