Antibodies Structure

Antibodies were the first elements of the immune system to be identified. They are antigen-reactive proteins present in an immune serum, called antiserum, and obtained after exposure of the vertebrate host to a given antigen, called an immunogen. By contrast, normal serum, also called preimmune serum, does not contain antibodies specific for that antigen. Antibodies belong to a group of proteins called immunoglobulins (Ig) that are present in the blood of immunized animals. The removal of cells and fibrin from blood is used to collect the serum fraction frequently referred to as antiserum. Listed in order of decreasing quantity found in plasma or serum, immunoglobulins comprise five major classes: immunoglobulin g (Igg), Iga, IgM, Igd and Ige.   


Each is composed of two identical heavy chains (H) and two identical light chains (L). The H chains differ in antigenic and structural properties, and determine the class and subclass of the molecule.

  • Antinuclear Antibodies
  • Antibodies Structure
  • Thyroglobulin Antibodies
  • Antimitochondrial Antibodies
  • Heterophile Antibodies
  • Cardiolipin Antibodies
  • Antithyroid Antibodies
  • Primary Antibodies
  • Secondary Antibodies
  • Endomysial Antibodies
  • Antisperm Antibodies
  • Antimicrosomal Antibodies
  • Anti-centromere antibodies
  • Lupus Antibodies
  • Rubella Antibodies
  • Antithyroglobulin Antibodies
  • Tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies

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