Antigenic Variation of Flu/ Influenza Virus

The explosive nature of epidemic flu and the specific clinical features of this disease have given definitive epidemiological records of this infection since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Some of the epidemics were recorded during the nineteenth century but the first pandemic was not precisely recorded until 1889-92. A second pandemic, probably originating in Europe, occurred in 1918-19, and is called as Spanish Influenza. It is responsible for 20-25 million deaths, principally in young adults. It was suggested that this strain had unusual virulence

Flu virus is an antigenically and genetically diverse group of viruses belongs to family Orthomyxoviridae that contains a negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA genome. Mostly, Influenza A and B viruses causes of influenza-like illness, but other pathogens like influenza C viruses, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae also involves in causing influenza-like illness.Influenza pandemics are a result of the transmission of the virus from birds to humans, or the transfer of such genes to seasonal influenza. Global outbreak caused by a new strain of influenza A virus that contains an antigenically novel hemagglutinin protein, efficiently transmitted from person to person. Due to the lack of immunity in humans against the new virus, serious epidemics can be provoked with high morbidity and mortality rates. The best way of prevention and control is vaccination and antiviral medications.

  • Antigenic Shift
  • Antigenic Drift
  • Interaction between Influenza and Pneumococci
  • Treatment and prevention from influenza
  • Upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and treatment

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