Antimicrobial Resistance and Stewardship

Antibiotics are a type of antimicrobials that are used in treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. They may kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Many antibiotics are also effective against protozoans and fungi; some are toxic to humans and animals also, even when given in therapeutic dosage. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as common cold or influenza, and may be harmful when taken inappropriately. Physicians must ensure the patient has a bacterial infection before prescribing antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance invoke especially to the resistance to antibiotics that occurs in common bacteria that cause infection. The easy approach and capability of Antibiotics led to overuse in live-stock raising promotes bacteria to flourish resistance. This led to comprehensive problems with antibiotic resistance.

Antimicrobial stewardship is a coordinated program that promotes the appropriate use of antimicrobials (including antibiotics), improves outcomes for patients, reduces microbial resistance, and reduces the spread of infections caused by multidrug resistant organisms.

The abuse of antimicrobials is one of the most pressing public health problems in the world. Infectious organisms adapt to antimicrobials designed to kill them, making medicines ineffective. People infected with antimicrobial resistant organisms are more likely to have longer and more expensive hospital stays and may be more likely to die as a result of infection.

  • Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control
  • Habitats
  • Physiology of parasitic protozoa
  • Blood and tissue parasites
  • Malaria-Disease and Life Cycle
  • Trypanosomatids
  • American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease)
  • African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
  • Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis
  • Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Intestinal parasites
  • Giardia lamblia (syn. intestinalis, duodenalis)
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Cryptosporidium parvum
  • Trichomonas and free-living amoebas
  • Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Free-living opportunist amoebas
  • Host response to infection
  • Immune response
  • Immune pathology
  • Immune evasion
  • Control of protozoan parasites
  • Chemotherapy
  • Mechanisms of action and selective toxicity
  • Drug resistance
  • Biological control
  • Vaccination
  • Antimicrobials
  • Research and development
  • Antimicrobial Activity

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