Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology

Aquaculture also known as aqua farming is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other aquatic organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of fish. Mari culture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) , aquaculture "is understood to mean the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc.

Marine Biotechnology has been the subject of great importance not only because of the need for sustainable utilization of the vast marine resources to feed billions of people in this world but also due to the potential for discovery of new products and processes of economic importance through the rich biodiversity that is yet to be fully understood and exploited. Apart from contributing to high quality and healthy aqua-food, nutraceuticals and medicinal products (anti-cancer and antimicrobials), this sector is expected to contribute to sustainable alternative source of energy (biofuel from microalgae) and products for maintenance of environmental health. Advances in tools for bio prospecting and gene sequencing have opened up new avenues for discovery of biomolecules and their exploitation for developing a bio-economy (blue-economy)

 

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