Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

The technology which is used to achieve pregnancy artificially is known as the assisted reproductive technology. Assisted reproductive technology includes procedures namely fertility medication, in vitro fertilization(IVF)  and surrogacy. ART is primarily used in treating infertility among couples. It belongs mainly to the field of reproductive endocrinology and infertility. ART includes many techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI), cryopreservation, transvaginal ovum retrival, embryo transfer, assisted zona hatching, autologous endometrial co-culture, zygote intrafallopian transfer, cytoplasmic transfer, egg donors, sperm donors, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, emryo splitting, GIFT, ZIFT, sex selection and surgical sperm retrival. All these methods are being widely used as problems of infertility are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. While some of these methods are safe but majority of them are harmful to the fetus as the babies are born with some kind of birth defects or genetic defects.ART also carries the risk of heterotopic pregnancy. In IVF and ICSI babies are born with low birth weight, decreased expression of proteins in energy metabolism, visual impairment and cerebral palsy. ART procedures in the United States has doubled in the last 10years with the cost ranging from $2,000 to $30,000. ART procedures should be only performed after examing the medical condition of the couple. Many a times ART proves to be harmful to both the mother and child.

 

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