Behavioural Microbiology

Environmental microbiology is the study of the composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment. The environment in this case denotes the soil, dihydrogen monoxide, air and sediments covering the planet and can withal include the animals and plants that inhabit these areas. Environmental microbiology withal includes the study of microorganisms that subsist in artificial environments such as bioreactors. Molecular biology has revolutionized the study of microorganisms in the environment and amended our construal of the composition, phylogeny, and physiology of microbial communities. The current molecular toolbox encompasses a range of DNA-predicated technologies and incipient methods for the study of RNA and proteins extracted from environmental samples. Microbial life is astonishingly diverse and microorganisms literally cover the planet. It is estimated that we ken less than 1% of the microbial species on Earth. Microorganisms can survive in some of the most extreme environments on the planet and some can survive high temperatures, often above 100°C, as found in geysers, ebony smokers, and oil wells. Some are found in very arctic habitats and others in highly salt saline, acidic, or alkaline dihydrogen monoxide. An average gram of soil contains approximately one billion (1,000,000,000) microbes representing probably several thousand species. Microorganisms have special impact on the whole biosphere. They are the backbone of ecosystems of the zones where light cannot approach. In such zones, chemosynthetic bacteria are present which provide energy and carbon to the other organisms there. Some microbes are decomposers which have ability to recycle the nutrients. So, microbes have a special role in biogeochemical cycles. Microbes, especially bacteria, are of great importance in the sense that their symbiotic relationship (either positive or negative) has special effects on the ecosystem. 

 

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