Bioenergy Economy, Market, Policy and Social Acceptance

Biomass is an extremely important renewable energy source, available nearly everywhere. It can be stored for a long time and often it is economically viable. Biomass is utilized in the best way in Combined Heat and Power plants. In particular the energy obtained is maximized in small power systems (from a few hundred kW electric to one or two MW electric), built near the heat consumer. Biomass power technologies convert renewable biomass fuels to heat and electricity. At present, the primary approach for generating electricity from biomass is combustion direct-firing. Combustion systems for electricity and heat production are similar to most fossil-fuel fired power plants. The biomass fuel is burned in a boiler to produce high-pressure steam. This steam is introduced into a steam turbine, where it flows over a series of turbine blades, causing the turbine to rotate. The turbine is connected to an electric generator. The steam flows over and turns the turbine. The electric generator rotates, producing electricity. This is a widely available, commercial technology. A number of technologies are mature and fully commercial. These include industrial-scale biogas production and steam turbine CHP systems. Today, CHP systems satisfy electricity demand in several agro-industries (e.g., sugar, pulp, and paper industries) and provide excess power to the grid. Its applications are Electricity generation (Village electrification in an off-grid mode), (Biomass gasifier for captive power generation), Thermal applications.

World bioenergy use in 2010 was 1277 Mtoe, which is about 10% of the total global primary energy use (IEA 2012a). About 60% concerned the traditional use of biomass 686 chapter 20 Bioenergy Economics and Policies Bioenergy & Sustainability for cooking and heating. Traditional use of bioenergy is the combustion of solid fuels such as firewood, charcoal and agricultural residues for cooking, heating and lighting. The remaining 40% is used in modern bioenergy systems. Modern bioenergy involves the use of biomass in producing higher value energy carriers, such as electricity and liquid and gaseous fuels, or heat and power in modern installations.

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