Biotechnology in Agriculture

Farmers have always tried to increase their yield by manipulating the genetic makeup of plants. Agricultural biotechnology is the field of science used to increase the multiplication of micro-organisms, micro propagation of plants, produce genetically engineered plants that improve the efficiency of plant production, production of diagnostic tools to identify diseases and contaminants in plants and for the measurement and conservation of genetic resources. GM crops are created for human consumption using molecular biology techniques to get desired traits such as pest resistance, herbicide resistance, improved sweetness and delayed ripening. Plant hormones help to produce new plants from cuttings, as selective weedicides, speed up or slow down the growth of plants and to produce fruits without seeds. Use of horticulture helps in increasing the nutrition and resistance in plants. Drought stress can be minimized by production of most appropriate plant genotypes, seed priming, plant growth regulators and some other strategies.

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