Cancer Epidemiology, screening, Diagnosis & Prognosis

The Epidemiology of Cancer is the study of the factors affecting Cancer, a way to conclude possible tendencies and causes. The study of Cancer Epidemiology practices Epidemiological Methods to discover the cause of Cancer and to recognize and develop enhanced treatments. This extent of study must cope with difficulties of lead time bias and length time bias. Lead time bias is the theory that primary diagnosis may artificially inflate the survival statistics of a Cancer, without actually improving the natural history of the disease. Length bias is the concept that tender growing, more lethargic Tumors are more likely to be recognised by Screening Tests, but improvements in diagnosing more cases of indolent Cancer may not translate into better patient outcomes after the implementation of Screening Programs.

Most Cancers are originally known either because of the appearance of signs or symptoms or through Screening. Neither of these leads to a Definitive Diagnosis, which comprises the examination of a tissue sample by a pathologist. People with suspected Cancer are observed with medical tests. These generally include Blood Tests, CT Scans, X-rays and Endoscopy.

Screenings can find initial Cancer, when it’s most curable. Cancer Screening aims to identify Cancer before symptoms appear. This may include blood tests, urine tests, other tests, or Medical Imaging. The aids of screening in terms of Cancer Prevention, early detection and subsequent treatment must be weighed beside any harm. Worldwide screening, Population Screening or Mass Screening involves screening everyone, generally within a definite age group. Selective Screening detects people who are known to be at advanced risk of developing Cancer, such as people with a family history of Cancer.

  • Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) towards cancer Diagnosis
  • Microfluidic device for cancer screening
  • Cancer Staging
  • Early detection and diagnosis of Cancer
  • Early detection and diagnosis of Cancer

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