Cancer Stages & Causes

If the cancer is present at only one place, then Surgery or Radiotherapy would be sufficient but if in case the cancer is spread to adjacent organs the treatment should be given in such a way that it circulates the whole body.

There are 2 types of staging systems of cancer,

TNM system

 Number system

Changes that occur in DNA with in the cells leads to cancer. DNA present in the cell packed into a huge number of individual genes which contains specific instructions performed by the cell. If the changes occur, it alters the cell function and makes the cell cancerous. Gene mutations can direct a healthy cell to

  • Allow rapid growth
  • Fail to stop uncontrolled cell growth
  • Make mistakes while repairing DNA errors

Others causes of cancer are due to behavioral, economic, lifestyle, pollution and environmental characters which converts the healthy cells to cancer cells. 90-95% cancers are due to environmental factors and some cancers are due to inherited genetics. Environmental factors that contribute to increase mortality rate of cancer patients includes tobacco, diet and obesity, infections, radiation, stress, lack of physical activity and pollution. Agents that have been linked to cause of cancers are said to be carcinogens. About 90% of lung cancers are due to smoking. Tobacco smoke also causes cancer in larynx, head, neck, stomach, bladder, kidney, esophagus and pancreas. Lung cancer and mesothelioma also can be caused due to inhaling tobacco smoke, asbestos fibers and leukemia from exposure to benzene. Absence of physical activity also contributes to causing cancer not only due to body weight also due to effects of immune system & endocrine system. Intake of high salt food leads to gastric cancer. 18% of cancer deaths are due to infectious diseases. Human papilloma virus causes cervical cancer and hepatitis B and C virus causes hepatocellular carcinoma. 10% of cancers are due to exposure to radiation like ionizing radiation and non-ionizing ultraviolet radiation.

  • Cancer staging
  • Cancer grading
  • Tests and procedures for detection of cancer staging
  • Chemicals & Physical agents
  • Exercise & Diet
  • Heredity & Genetic variations
  • Infection & Autoimmune diseases
  • Radiation

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