Case studies on Infectious Diseases

\ Developed countries have regulations that help to protect the general public from infectious diseases. Public health measures typically involve eliminating the pathogen from the reservoir or from its route of transmission. The measures include ensuring a safe water supply, effectively managing sewage treatment and disposal, and initiating food safety, animal control, and vaccination programs. Influenza drug effectivity is evaluated in clinical trials conducted within the setting of current,  naturally occurring influenza illness. However, a drug effective within the treatment of seasonal  influenza might not be effective or as effective in pandemic influenza or in sporadic cases caused by alternative novel strains. Avian influenza, listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE),  has become an illness of nice importance for animal and human health.


Influenza is a highly infectious viral disease which can occur as a pandemic, epidemic, outbreak and in form of sporadic cases. influenza A viruses that infect humans, three major subtypes of hemagglutinins (H1, H2, and H3) and two subtypes of neuraminidases (N1 and N2). Type A has been associated with widespread epidemics and pandemics, while type B has been infrequently implicated in regional epidemics. Influenza type C infections cause only a mild respiratory illness. Humans are the primary reservoir. Animal reservoirs are suspected as sources of new human subtypes and may occur particularly when people and livestock (for example pigs and poultry) live closely together. Surveillance data is used to identify and monitor the arrival of influenza, its geographic spread, intensity of activity, characteristics of those infected, as well as severity and changing trends in order to guide prevention and control recommendations.

  • Spread and Evolution of Infectious Diseases
  • Zoonotic Infection
  • Inequality, Political Ecology and the Future of Infectious Diseases
  • Denizens of the Microbial World
  • Climatic conditions for Infectious Diseases
  • Geographical Distribution of Infectious Diseases
  • Infections on Global Impact

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