Cereals and Crops

Comparison of the order of blocks within the different cereal chromosomes revealed that each cereal genome can be derived from the cleavage of a single structure, a hypothetical ‘ancestral’ genome, from which the genomes of present day cereals and grasses have evolved. The rice genome is one of the smallest among the cereals and grasses, and in 1995, we demonstrated that rice could be a model for cereals based on this ‘synteny’ because its genome can be divided into groups of genes - a series of genomic building blocks - from which the other larger cereal genomes can be constructed. The genome analysis will also help in our efforts for improvement of staple foods for yield and quality, which is a continuous process because neither the conditions of cultivation nor the genomes have to be targeted to the need of adaptations to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. Functional food components vary across the cereal crops and within different tissues of grain. Wild germplasm is another untapped resource of useful genetic variation in the functional food compounds.

The global market for biopesticides was valued at $1,796.56 Million in 2013 and is expected to reach $4,369.88 Million by 2019, growing at a CAGR of 16.0% from 2014 to 2019. North America dominated the global biopesticides market. Europe is expected to be the fastest growing market in the near future owing to the stringent regulation for pesticides and increasing demand from organic products.

Crop science is concerned with selection and improvement of crops. It includes research and development on production techniques, improving agriculture productivity, minimizing the effects of pest, planting, maintenance, protection, harvesting and storage aspects of post-harvest, soil fertility, pest management. Soil fertility is Ability of soil to provide all essential plant nutrients in available forms and in a suitable balance, it support luxuriant growth of plants with very little human effort. It contains sufficient minerals, soil organic matter, good soil structure and soil moisture retention .Soil fertility is of two type’s permanent and temporary fertility.

  • Cereal grains
  • Cash crops
  • Oil seeds
  • Pulses
  • Vegetables
  • Beverage and spice crops

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