Clinical Interventions & Case Reports

\r\n The comorbid psychiatric conditions were equally represented, with schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder, psychotic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder as the most common disorders. All patients presented substance use disorders, with alcohol abuse (71.4%) and cocaine abuse (42.9%) as the most prevalent ones. During a severe dual pathology program, it was noted that a considerable number of severe dual pathology cases first become noticed at an emergency mental health unit. The patient's cooperation while in the ER is essential for detecting undiagnosed dual-pathology cases or managing clinical decompensation episodes in these patients. The use of inhaled loxapine might be of a great help to attain this goal. Although our data refer to a limited number of cases, this case series represents the overall clinical practice and demonstrates the effectiveness of inhaled loxapine for agitation in dual patients who are seen at a hospital. Afterward, an adequate management of the comorbid disorders with the available integrated resources would be necessary to improve treatment adherence and outcome in patients with dual diagnosis.

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