Clinical Manifestations of Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis does not usually produce symptoms until blood circulation becomes restricted or blocked, leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The type of cardiovascular disease and its associated symptoms depends on where the blockage occurs. Conditions caused by atherosclerosis include peripheral arterial disease, angina, aneurysm, heart attack and stroke.

Atherosclerosis does not usually produce symptoms until blood circulation becomes restricted or blocked, leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The type of cardiovascular disease and its associated symptoms depends on where the blockage occurs. Conditions caused by atherosclerosis include peripheral arterial disease, angina, aneurysm, heart attack and stroke.

Congestive Heart failure - Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic progressive condition that affects the pumping power of heart muscles. While often referred to simply as “heart failure”, CHF specifically refers to the stage in which fluid builds up around the heart causing it to pump inefficiently. CHF develops when your ventricles can’t pump blood in sufficient volume to the body. Eventually, blood and other fluids back up inside lungs, abdomen, liver, lower body.

Myocardial Infraction - Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack occurs when blood flow stops to a part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Often it is in the centre or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. About 30% of people have atypical symptoms, with women more likely than men to present atypically. Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms.  Approximately 1.5 million cases of MI occur annually in the United States.

Arrhythmias - Arrhythmia means irregular heartbeat either beating too fast or too slow. It just means it's out of its normal rhythm. It may feel like heart skipped a beat, added a beat, is fluttering, or is beating too fast its tachycardia or too slow its bradycardia.

Pulmonary Embolism - Pulmonary embolism is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in lungs. In most cases, pulmonary embolism is caused by blood clots that travel to the lungs from the legs or, rarely, other parts of the body. Pulmonary embolism can be life-threatening, but prompt treatment can greatly reduce the risk of death.

Cardiomyopathy - Cardiomyopathy is a condition in which heart muscle becomes inflamed and enlarged. Because it is enlarged, heart muscle is stretched and becomes weak. This means it can’t pump blood as fast as it should. If heart muscle becomes too weak, may develop heart failure. Most people are only mildly affected by cardiomyopathy and can lead relatively normal lives. However, people who have severe heart failure may need a heart transplant. Cardiomyopathy is different to a heart attack. Heart attacks also damage part of your heart muscle, but may be caused by something else.

  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Arrhythmias
  • Myocardial Infraction

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