COPD and Co-Morbidities

Comorbidities such as cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, and psychological disorders are commonly reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but with great variability. Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for many of these comorbidities as well as for COPD, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the relationship between COPD and these comorbidities. Epidemiological studies and large clinical trials have helped us to understand the importance of comorbidities .However; recent large epidemiologic studies have confirmed the independent detrimental effects of these comorbidities on patients with COPD. Many of these comorbidities are now considered to be part of the commonly prevalent to COPD. The common ground between most of these extra pulmonary manifestations is chronic systemic inflammation.

Extra pulmonary comorbidities influence the prognosis of patients with COPD. Tobacco smoking is a common risk factor for many comorbidities, including coronary heart disease, heart failure and lung cancer. Comorbidities such as pulmonary artery disease and malnutrition are directly caused by COPD, whereas others, such as systemic venous thromboembolism, anxiety, depression, osteoporosis, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, sleep disturbance and anaemia, have no evident physio pathological relationship with COPD.

  • Musculoskeletal Dysfunction
  • Inflammation in Heart Disease
  • COPD and Lung Cancer
  • Metabolic Abnormalities in COPD

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