Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called heart disease, results from a complex process known as atherosclerosis (commonly called "hardening of the arteries"). In atherosclerosis, fatty deposits (plaques) of cholesterol and other cellular waste products build up in the inner linings of the heart’s arteries. This causes blockage of arteries and prevents oxygen-rich blood from reaching the heart (ischemia). 

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called heart disease, results from a complex process known as atherosclerosis (commonly called "hardening of the arteries"). In atherosclerosis, fatty deposits (plaques) of cholesterol and other cellular waste products build up in the inner linings of the heart’s arteries. This causes blockage of arteries and prevents oxygen-rich blood from reaching the heart (ischemia). 

Coronary artery calcification - Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population and in patients with coronary artery disease. The pathogenesis of CAC and bone formation share common pathways, and risk factors have been identified that contribute to the initiation and progression of CAC. Efforts to control CAC with medical therapy have not been successful. Event-free survival is also reduced in patients with coronary calcification after both percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and bypass graft surgery. Calcium regulatory mechanisms that affect bone formation and growth also influence CAC. Hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia promote CAC.

Coronary artery stenosis - A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure. It is also sometimes called a stricture (as in urethral stricture). Clinically, risk of stroke from carotid stenosis is evaluated by the presence or absence of symptoms and the degree of stenosis on imaging.

Peripheral Artery Disease - The arteries in legs become blocked, they do not receive enough blood or oxygen, and may have a condition called peripheral artery disease (PAD), sometimes called leg artery disease. PAD can cause discomfort or pain when you walk. The pain can occur in your hips, buttocks, thighs, knees, shins, or upper feet. Leg artery disease is considered a type of peripheral arterial disease because it affects the arteries, blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to your limbs. Smoking or having diabetes increases the chances of developing the disease sooner.

Aorta atherosclerosis - Aortic atherosclerotic lesions have been referred to in several different ways in the medical literature, which may include atheromas, protruding atheromas, atherosclerotic debris, and plaque. Plaques with high risk for embolization are those that are ≥4 mm thick. 

  • Aorta Atherosclerosis
  • Coronary Artery Stenosis
  • Peripheral Artery Disease
  • Coronary Artery Calcification

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