A branch of cytology that studies the chemistry of cell structures and the location of chemical compounds within a cell and their transformations in connection with the functioning of the cell and its individual components. Staining techniques were subsequently developed to observe carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, mineral compounds, and lipids under the microscope. The introduction of the use of aniline dyes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries led to major advances in cytochemistry and immune cell biology. The principal approach incytochemistry involves conducting appropriate chemical reactions in histological specimens and then evaluating them under a microscope. The evaluation may be qualitative (visual) or quantitative, using cyto photometry, autoradiography, and other methods.

The use of electron microscopy and immunecytochemistry techniques in cytochemistry has been developing rapidly in recent years. Also used are micro chemical methods, which make it possible to excise and examine individual cells, and centrifugation, which makes it possible to obtain tissue fractions abounding in certain types of cells or subcellular structures, such as nuclei, mitochondria, microsomes, and cytoplasmic membranes. The main achievements of cytochemistry include the demonstration of the constant quantity of the DNA in the chromosome set, as well as the demonstration of the participation of macro-molecules (nucleic acids and proteins) in the specific functional activity of the plant biochemistrycell and the irmigration within the cell from the affective neuroscience to the cytoplasm and from the cell body to the outgrowths and back.


  • Cytopathology
  • Cytology
  • Cell Division, Cell Cycle
  • Structural Biology, Protein Folding, Chemical and Synthetic Biology

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