Dementia Pathophysiology

Vascular disease is mainly caused by hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) due to a thickening of the artery lining from fatty deposits or plaques (atheroma).

Vascular disease may manifest acutely when thrombi, emboli, or acute trauma compromises perfusion. Thrombosis are often of an athermanous nature and occur in the lower extremities more frequently than in the upper extremities. Multiple factors predispose patients for thrombosis. These factors include sepsis, hypotension, low cardiac output, aneurysms, aortic dissection, bypass grafts, and underlying atherosclerotic narrowing of the arterial lumen.

Dementia is a symptom of a variety of specific structural brain diseases as well as several system degenerations. Alzheimer's disease presently is the commonest cause in the developed world, causing a cortical-subcortical degeneration of ascending cholinergic neurons and large pyramidal cells in the cerebral cortex.

Clinically, the disease reflects predominantly deterioration of function in the association cortex. Pharmacologically and pathologically, abnormalities are more diffuse and extend into sensorimotor cortical areas as well.

  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Aneurysm
  • Amyloid cascade and tau pathology
  • Vascular pathology in aging brain
  • Protein trafficking and synaptic pathology
  • White matter pathology in vascular cogitive disease
  • Hippocampal pathology in aged
  • Retinal pathology in susac syndrome
  • Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

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