Dental Microbiology and Infections

Oral microbiology is a complex ecological system where upto 700 species of microorganisms that have been identified .Some of the predominant groups present in the mouth include Streptococcus, Neisseria, Veillonella, Actinomyces and other obligate anaerobes . These organisms maintain a mutualistic relationship with the host by preventing pathogenic species from adhering to the mucosal surface. Oral microflorae can cause dental plaques and are also a common cause dental caries and periodontal disease. An understanding of the oral environment and microbial interactions leads to understanding the main causes for the onset of oral diseases. Periodontics is that specialty of dentistry which encompasses the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the supporting and surrounding tissues of the teeth or their substitutes and the maintenance of the health, function and esthetics of these structures and tissues. 

Oral microbiology is the study of the microorganisms of the oral cavity and their interactions between oral microorganisms or with the host. Of particular interest is the role of oral microorganisms in the two major dental diseases: dental caries and periodontal disease. The mouth harbors a diverse, abundant and complex microbial community. This highly diverse micro flora inhabits the various surfaces of the normal mouth. Bacteria accumulate on both the hard and soft oral tissues in biofilms. Bacterial adhesion is particularly important for oral bacteria. Oral bacteria have evolved mechanisms to sense their environment and evade or modify the host. Bacteria occupy the ecological niche provided by both the tooth surface and gingival epithelium. However, a highly efficient innate host defense system constantly monitors the bacterial colonization and prevents bacterial invasion of local tissues. A dynamic equilibrium exists between dental plaque bacteria and the innate host defense system. 

  • Oral and maxillofacial pathology
  • Dental caries and Dental Plague
  • Oral bacteria
  • Osteoporosis and tooth decay
  • Periodontal Diseases

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