Design and Synthesis of Materials

Certain principles are there to synthesize a novel material : to develop an understanding of different materials systems, to know the origins of physical, chemical, and functional properties of different materials, to study basic principles of synthesis and characterization of materials, to understand the origins of functional responses of materials and also the role of materials in science, industry, and technology. Often a pure substance needs to be isolated from a mixture or after chemical reactions (which often give mixtures of chemical substances). From ores, extraction can be done by means of oxidation catalysis and reduction whereas in laboratory by techniques like Hydraulic Washing, Magnetic Separation, Froth Floatation Method, Leaching and so on.

Biomaterials are any matter, surface, or construct either from nature or synthesized in the laboratory and that interacts with biological systems. A ceramic is a non-metallic material composed of inorganic molecules, generally prepared by heating a powder or slurry and glassy materials are hard, brittle, and not crystalline which results in optical transparency. Solid state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not exclusively of, non-molecular solids. Thus it has a strong overlap with solid-state physics, mineralogy, crystallography, ceramics, metallurgy, thermodynamics, materials science and electronics with a focus on the synthesis of novel materials and their characterization. Mixtures of metallic materials are called alloys, are more commonly used than the pure metal. By alloying, some of the key properties of metals can be altered. Composite materials are mixtures of two or more bonded materials. The design and synthesis of these materials with different approaches can be done here.

Materials science and technology is a multidisciplinary approach to science that involves designing, choosing, and using three major classes of materials—metals, ceramics, and polymers (plastics). Wood also could be used. Another class of materials used in MST is composites, which are made of a combination of materials (such as in particle board or fiberglass). Designed materials constituted much of the accelerating pace of materials science. This has launched us into the third and final era of materials history, which began its accelerated pace in the 1950s. Today, we hear about newly designed materials daily as the demand for new and better materials gives rise to these new products.

  • Underlying principles of Materials
  • Isolation of elements
  • Biomaterials
  • Ceramics and glasses
  • Solid state chemistry
  • Metal alloys
  • Composite materials

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