Diabetes and Immunology

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by an absolute loss of insulin secretion. It results from an autoimmune process that destroys insulin-producing β cells within the pancreatic islet. The importance of genetic factors in the etiology of type 1 diabetes is demonstrated by agreement rates of 5–10% in dizygotic twins and up to 27% in monozygotic twins. Patients with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of other immune-mediated diseases like thyroid disease, coeliac disease, autoimmune gastritis and Addison's disease.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by impaired insulin secretion, glucose intolerance, and hyperglycemia. Inflammation is considered as a major driving force in type -2 diabetes and associated complications also arise along with it. Components of the immune system are altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes with the most changes occurring in adipose tissue, the liver, pancreatic islets, the vasculature and circulating leukocytes.

 

  • The immune nature of type 1 and type 2 diabetes
  • Association of diabetes with auto-immune diseases
  • New strategies for prevention and treatment of type-1 diabetic patients
  • Presence of islet immunity in type-2 diabetic patients

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