Diagnostic Microbiology: Applications

                                  Applied Diagnostic Microbiology

Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease also covers such areas as laboratory and clinical management of microbial diseases, epidemiology and pathogenesis of infections, automation in the diagnostic microbiology laboratory, and antibiotic susceptibility testing.

The clinical presentation of an infectious disease reflects the interaction between the host and the microorganism. This interaction is affected by the host immune status and microbial virulence factors. Signs and symptoms vary according to the site and severity of infection. Diagnosis requires a composite of information, including history, physical examination, radiographic findings, and laboratory data.

Direct Examination and Techniques: Direct examination of specimens reveals gross pathology. Microscopy may identify microorganisms. Immunofluorescence, immuno-peroxidase staining, and other immunoassays may detect specific microbial antigens. Genetic probes identify genus- or species-specific DNA or RNA sequences.

Culture: Isolation of infectious agents frequently requires specialized media. Nonselective (noninhibitory) media permit the growth of many microorganisms. Selective media contain inhibitory substances that permit the isolation of specific types of microorganisms.

Microbial Identification: Colony and cellular morphology may permit preliminary identification. Growth characteristics under various conditions, utilization of carbohydrates and other substrates, enzymatic activity, immunoassays, and genetic probes are also used.

Serodiagnosis: A high or rising titer of specific IgG antibodies or the presence of specific IgM antibodies may suggest or confirm a diagnosis.

Antimicrobial Susceptibility: Microorganisms, particularly bacteria, are tested in vitro to determine whether they are susceptible to antimicrobial agents.

  • Microscopy and culture
  • Clinical tests
  • Immunological tests
  • Nucleic acid and non-nucleic acid based identification methods
  • Radiology
  • Biomarkers
  • ELISA test
  • Tympanocentesis
  • Novel diagnostics
  • Antigen and antibodies assays
  • Vaccine vectors

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