Drug Action & Metabolism

The importance of stereochemistry in drug analysis is gaining greater attention in medical biology practice, and a basic knowledge of the subject will be necessary for clinicians to make informed decisions regarding the use of single-enantiomer drugs.   Chirality the most important point is that chiral drugs have 2 structurally similar forms that can behave very differently in biological systems due to their different shapes in 3-dimensional space. These 2 possible forms are termed as enantiomers and the 2 enantiomers of a given chiral drug should be considered 2 different drugs. In biological synthesis chiral drugs synthesises enantiomers of a chiral drug have identical physical and chemical properties in an achiral environment. In a chiral environment, one enantiomer may display different chemical and pharmacology of cancer drug behaviour than the other enantiomer. Because living systems are themselves chiral, each of the enantiomers of a chiral drug can behave very differently in vivo. In other words, the R-enantiomer of a drug will not necessarily behave the same way as the S-enantiomer of the same drug when taken by a patient. The importance of chirality in camptothecin drugs and in all drugs approximately 50% of marketed drugs are chiral, and of these approximately 50% are mixtures of enantiomers rather than single enantiomers.  Racemization refers to the conversion of an enantiomerically pure mixture into a mixture where more than one of the enantiomers are present. If the racemization results in a mixture where the enantiomers are present in equal quantities, the resulting sample is described as racemic or a racemate. Mutarotation is the change in the optical rotation because of the change in the equilibrium between two anomers, when the corresponding stereocenters interconvert. Cyclic sugars show mutarotation as α and β anomeric forms interconvert. The optical rotation of the solution depends on the optical rotation of each anomer and their ratio in the solution. 

The importance of stereochemistry in drug analysis is gaining greater attention in medical biology practice, and a basic knowledge of the subject will be necessary for clinicians to make informed decisions regarding the use of single-enantiomer drugs.   Chirality the most important point is that chiral drugs have 2 structurally similar forms that can behave very differently in biological systems due to their different shapes in 3-dimensional space. These 2 possible forms are termed as enantiomers and the 2 enantiomers of a given chiral drug should be considered 2 different drugs. In biological synthesis chiral drugs synthesises enantiomers of a chiral drug have identical physical and chemical properties in an achiral environment. In a chiral environment, one enantiomer may display different chemical and pharmacology of cancer drug behaviour than the other enantiomer. Because living systems are themselves chiral, each of the enantiomers of a chiral drug can behave very differently in vivo. In other words, the R-enantiomer of a drug will not necessarily behave the same way as the S-enantiomer of the same drug when taken by a patient. The importance of chirality in camptothecin drugs and in all drugs approximately 50% of marketed drugs are chiral, and of these approximately 50% are mixtures of enantiomers rather than single enantiomers.  Racemization refers to the conversion of an enantiomerically pure mixture into a mixture where more than one of the enantiomers are present. If the racemization results in a mixture where the enantiomers are present in equal quantities, the resulting sample is described as racemic or a racemate. Mutarotation is the change in the optical rotation because of the change in the equilibrium between two anomers, when the corresponding stereocenters interconvert. Cyclicsugars show mutarotation as α and β anomeric forms interconvert. The optical rotation of the solution depends on the optical rotation of each anomer and their ratio in the solution.  

  • Chirality
  • Racemization
  • Chiral drugs in biological synthesis
  • Importance of chirality in camptothecin drug
  • Mutarotation

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