Dynamics and consequences of antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance-
Antimicrobial resistance occurs when microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change in ways that render the medications used to cure the infections they cause ineffective. When the microorganisms become resistant to most antimicrobials they are often referred to as “superbugs”. This is a major concern because a resistant infection may kill, can spread to others, and imposes huge costs to individuals and society.

Consequences of antimicrobial resistance-
The disease consequences of resistance should be assessed according to the morbidity and mortality rate due to antibiotic resistant organisms. It can be assumed that resistant microorganisms lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality since resistance increases the risk of inappropriate therapy. There is an increased risk that patients who do not receive appropriate treatment will have a longer course of disease or a fatal outcome; moreover, as these patients remain infectious for a longer period, morbidity and transmission of the microorganism are increased. 

Dynamics of Antimicrobial Resistance-
The dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries are poorly understood, especially in community settings, due to a sparsity of data on AMR prevalence and genetics. We used a combination of phenotyping, genomics and antimicrobial usage data to investigate patterns of AMR amongst atypical enter pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from children younger than five years old in seven developing countries over a three-year period. 

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