Emerging Infectious Diseases and Recent Outbreaks

Emerging infectious disease (EID) are infections that appears for the first time in a population, or that may have appeared previously. Outbreaks are the occurrence of disease cases in abundance of what would normally be expected for a community, season or a geographical area (WHO). Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) is caused by four unique strains of Ebola virus; these viruses infect humans and nonhuman primates. Signs and symptoms of Ebola virus disease include migraine, unexpected fever, joint agony, muscle hurts, sore throat, and weakness. Series of Ebola symptoms includes rash, hiccups, stomach pain, internal and external bleeding in many patients, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Ebola infection spreads by contact with blood and discharges that stay on dress, needles and/or syringes or other medical supplies used to treat Ebola-infected patients, direct contact with blood and secretions. Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted basically by Aedes mosquitoes, which bite during the day. Symptoms are generally gentle and include conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, fever, malaise or headache. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can result infant to be born with microcephaly and other congenital distortions, known as Zika syndrome. Zika virus infection is also associated with other complexities of pregnancy including miscarriage and preterm birth.

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