Emerging infectious diseases and the "One Health" concept

\r\n “An emerging infectious disease (EID) is one that has appeared and affected a population for the first time, or has existed previously but is rapidly increasing, either in terms of the number of new cases within a population, or its spread to new geographical areas” One Health is defined as “a collaborative, multisectoral, and transdisciplinary approach—working at local, regional, national, and global levels—with the goal of achieving optimal health outcomes recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants and their shared environment. More than half of the known pathogens infectious to humans are shared with animals (“zoonotic” diseases), either via recurring transmission (e.g., rabies or plague) or from an initial spillover event (as is suspected with HIV/AIDS, which genetic analyses suggest probably originally emerged from great apes through contact during hunting or butchering). Public health topics with a One Health scope are as follows:

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\r\n Environmental determinants of disease risk

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\r\n Zoonotic and vector-borne disease risks

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\r\n Antimicrobial resistance

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\r\n Non-zoonotic diseases in animals

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\r\n Noncommunicable diseases

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