Emerging Themes in Cancer Genomics

The Cancer Cell Map Initiative: Defining the Hallmark Networks of Cancer- Progress in DNA sequencing has revealed the startling complexity of cancer genomes, which typically carry thousands of somatic mutations. However, it remains unclear which are the key driver mutations or dependencies in a given cancer and how these influence pathogenesis and response to therapy. Although tumors of similar types and clinical outcomes can have patterns of mutations that are strikingly different, it is becoming apparent that these mutations recurrently hijack the same hallmark molecular pathways and networks. For this reason, it is likely that successful interpretation of cancer genomes will require comprehensive knowledge of the molecular networks under selective pressure in oncogenesis. he Cancer Cell Map Initiative (CCMI), aimed at systematically detailing these complex interactions among cancer genes and how they differ between diseased and healthy states. New Biologic Frontiers in Ovarian Cancer: Olaparib and PARP Inhibition. Systems Biology Approaches to the Study of Biological Networks Underlying Alzheimer’s Disease: Role of miRNAs. Cancer Immunology. Genomics will also impact our understanding of the immune system's interaction with tumors, leading to the development of personalized vaccine strategies that may provide more durable responses. The combination of next-generation sequencing and analysis as applied to experiments studying the cancer genome has revolutionized our understanding of cancer biology. Large-scale cancer genomics has further established a baseline that is now poised to effect the translation of cancer genomics into the clinical setting, effectively transforming patient care. The barriers and challenges to translation are significant, not the least of which involves the transition of research-grade computational and interpretational analysis to clinical-grade analysis. Assays must be highly refined, validated and accurate. How the use of genomic approaches to monitor patient response to therapy, the onset of acquired resistance to therapy and other aspects of patient care will be accepted as a more sensitive partner with conventional imaging approaches must be addressed.

 

The impact of genomics and pharmacogenomics in the current arena of clinical oncology is well-established. In breast cancer, mutations in genes have been well-characterized to carry a high risk of the disease during a woman's lifespan. However, these high risk genes contribute to only a small proportion of the familial cases of breast cancer. Multiple pharmacogenomic studies have previously linked genetic variants in known pathways with treatment response in cancer patients

The combination of next-generation sequencing and analysis as applied to experiments studying the cancer genome has revolutionized our understanding of cancer biology. Large-scale cancer genomics has further established a baseline that is now poised to effect the translation of cancer genomics into the clinical setting, effectively transforming patient care. The barriers and challenges to translation are significant, not the least of which involves the transition of research-grade computational and interpretational analysis to clinical-grade analysis. Assays must be highly refined, validated and accurate. How the use of genomic approaches to monitor patient response to therapy, the onset of acquired resistance to therapy and other aspects of patient care will be accepted as a more sensitive partner with conventional imaging approaches must be addressed.

Some of the Emerging Trends in Cancer Genomics are:

·         Microbial genomics

·         Clinical Translation of Cancer Genomics

·         Clinical DNA Sequencing

·         CancerImmunotherapy

·         Clinical genome network and modeling

  • Microbial genomics
  • Clinical Translation of Cancer Genomics
  • Clinical DNA Sequencing
  • Cancer Immunotherapy
  • Clinical genome network and modeling

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