Epidemiology and Chronic Diseases

The mission of the Chronic Disease Epidemiology Department (CDE) is to advance the health of the public by promoting a research-based approach to the prevention and management of chronic disease. Research in the chronic disease epidemiology cluster addresses the etiology, prevention, distribution, natural history, and treatment outcomes of chronic health disorders, including cancer (particularly breast, colon, lung, prostate, ovary and pancreas), cardiovascular disease, diabetes, gastrointestinal and pulmonary disease, and obesity
Acute and chronic respiratory diseases impose a huge public health burden in the developing world. A large and growing body of scientific evidence indicates that household air pollution exposures contribute substantially to this burden. The most important source of indoor air pollution in developing countries is unvented burning of biomass fuel and coal at the household stove. Indoor air pollution concentrations from such burning can be hundreds or thousands of times higher than outdoor concentrations in western countries. To date, unvented biomass fuel burning has been implicated in many non-malignant respiratory disorders, including acute lower respiratory infections in children, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cor pulmonale in adults (especially women), tuberculosis, and deficits in mechanical lung function. Indoor coal smoke exposure, studied to data mainly in China, has been associated with both lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disorders.Assessing allergy by measurement of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibodies is fast and safe to perform. Serum antibodies can preferably be assessed in patients with dermatitis and in those who regularly use antihistamines and other pharmacological agents that reduce skin sensitivity. Skin tests represent the easiest tool to obtain quick and reliable information for the diagnosis of respiratory allergic diseases. It is the technique more widely used, specific and reasonably sensitive for most applications as a marker of atopy. Measurement of serum IgE antibodies and skin-prick testing may give complimentary information and can be applied in clinical and epidemiological settings. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is less used, but is important in clinical practice to demonstrate the allergic aetiology of disease, to monitor its clinical course and to address the choice of therapy. In epidemiology, hypereosinophilia seems to reflect an inflammatory reaction in the airways, which may be linked to obstructive airflow limitation.

Session includes following sub tracks:

Epidemiology and prevalence chronic disease, Epidemiology and Incidence chronic disease

  • Epidemiology and prevalence chronic disease
  • Epidemiology and Incidence chronic disease

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