Expression Profiling

Gene expression profiling simultaneously compares the expression levels of many genes between two or more sample types. This analysis can help scientists identify the molecular basis for phenotypic differences and select gene expression targets for in-depth study using other technologies. Gene expression profiling provides valuable insight into the role of differential gene expression in normal biological and disease processes. There are many techniques used for gene expression profiling. One of the major techniques for expression profiling includes Measuring Relative Activity by SAGE and Super SAGE, where SAGE stands for serial analysis of gene expression technology for the analysis of expressed genes.  The other technique includes Gene annotation which provides functional and other information, for example the location of each gene within a particular chromosome. Some functional annotations are more reliable than others; some are absent. Gene annotation databases change regularly, and various databases refer to the same protein by different names, reflecting a changing understanding of protein function. Having identified some set of regulated genes, the next step in expression profiling involves looking for patterns within the regulated set for categorizing regulated genes. This can be done by finding similarities between the functioning of the proteins produced from different cell. Further categorization is done on the basis of relationship between two genes and their products by finding patterns among regulated genes. This is analysed by the fact that what these regulated genes actually are and what they do. Compared to Proteomics, the human genome contains on the order of 25,000 genes which work in concert to produce on the order of 1,000,000 distinct proteins. Knowledge of the precise proteins a cell makes, is more relevant than knowing how much messenger RNA is made from each gene, gene expression profiling provides the most global picture possible in a single experiment.

Gene Expression profiling has a growing research being utilized by major companies like Wafergen Biosystems, Afymetrix, SBI, Luminex, Asper Biotech, Genentech San Francisco to name a few. The research has been supported as a course by more than 470 universities and gains international funding too.

Relevant Conferences:

2nd International Conference on Genetic and Protein Engineering, Nov 14-16, 2016, Atlanta, USA; Clinical and Molecular Genetics November 28-30, 2016 Chicago, USA; 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Cell and Gene Therapy May 19-21, 2016 San Antonio, USA; International Conference on Genetic Counselling and Genomic Medicine August 11-12, 2016 Birmingham, UK; 6th International Conference on Bioinformatics  March 29-30, 2016 Valencia, Spain; 6th International Conference & Expo on Proteomics March 31-Apr 2, 2016, Atlanta, USA; NGS 2016 Genome Annotation, April 4-6, 2016, Barcelona, Spain; NGS Data Analysis and Informatics Conference, February 18-19, 2016, San Diego, USA; Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation (GRS), July 9-10, 2016, Vermont, United States; Basic Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cancer, November 8–11, 2015, Berlin, Germany; Keystone Symposia: Metabolism, Transcription and Disease, Jan 10-14, 2016, Utah, USA.

As a tool for high-throughput, quantitative gene expression analysis, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is one of the most powerful techniques. However, the short size of tags (14 bp) has hindered the application of SAGE to a vast majority of eukaryotes without sufficient genomic resources, including expressed sequence tag and genome sequences. To overcome this problem, SuperSAGE has been developed. Gene Annotation is the process by which pertinent information about these raw DNA sequences is added to the genome databases. 

  • SAGE and SuperSAGE
  • Gene annotation
  • Categorizing Regulated Genes
  • Finding Patterns among Regulated Genes
  • Comparison to Proteomics

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