Eye Movements

Ocular motility should always be tested, especially when patients complain of double vision or physician’s suspect neurologic disease. First, the doctor should visually assess the eyes for deviations that could result from strabismus, extraocular muscle dysfunction, or palsy of the cranial nerves innervating the extraocular muscles. Saccades are assessed by having the patient move his or her eye quickly to a target at the far right, left, top and bottom. This tests for saccadic dysfunction whereupon poor ability of the eyes to "jump" from one place to another may impinge on reading ability and other skills, whereby the eyes are required to fixate and follow a desired object. The patient is asked to follow a target with both eyes as it is moved in each of the nine cardinal directions of gaze. The examiner notes the speed, smoothness, range and symmetry of movements and observes for unsteadiness of fixation. These nine fields of gaze test the extraocular muscles: inferior, superior, lateral and medial rectus muscles, as well as the superior and inferior oblique muscles.

Vision therapy also known as vision training, is used to improve vision skills such as eye movement control and eye coordination. It involves a series of procedures carried out in both home and office settings, usually under professional supervision by an orthoptist or optometrist. Binocular vision is one of the hallmarks of the human race that has bestowed on it the supremacy in the hierarchy of the animal kingdom. It is an asset with normal alignment of the two eyes, but becomes a liability when the alignment is lost. Binocular Single Vision may be defined as the state of simultaneous vision, which is achieved by the coordinated use of both eyes, so that separate and slightly dissimilar images arising in each eye are appreciated as a single image by the process of fusion. Thus binocular vision implies fusion, the blending of sight from the two eyes to form a single percept. Lazy eye (amblyopia) is decreased vision that results from abnormal visual development in infancy and early childhood. Although lazy eye usually affects only one eye, it can affect both eyes. Lazy eye is the leading cause of decreased vision among children. Left untreated, vision loss may range from mild to severe.

  • Role of Eye Movements in Vision
  • Vision Therapy
  • Eye Movement Disorders
  • Pediatrics and Binocular Vision
  • Vision, Learning and Dyslexia
  • Amblyopia

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18th World Congress on Optometry and Vision Science

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Eye Movements Conference Speakers