Fish Biology

Aquatic immunology deals with disease problems describe the major single cause of regulatory losses in aquaculture. In 1988, catfish producers lost over 100 million fish value nearly $11 million. Estimates for 1989 forecast even major losses. The trout industry reported 1988 losses of over 20 million fish worth over $2.5 million. No data are avail on losses sustained by producers of shellfish. Bacterial infections create the most important source of disease problems in all the varied types of production. Gram-negative bacteria cause epizootics in almost all cultured species. Fungal diseases produce the second most crucial source of losses, above all in the culture of crustaceans and salmon. External protozoan parasites are responsible for the loss of vast numbers of fry and fingerling fin fishes and are a source of epizootics from all young shellfish.

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