Flu Clinical Studies & Case Reports

Avian influenza, listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), has become a disease of great importance for animal and human health.Millions of animals have died, and concern is growing over the loss of human lives and management of the pandemic potential. Vaccinology for avian influenza is critical. Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP+M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen.  Since 2002, various wild bird species also have succumbed to infection with the Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses. The pathogenesis of AI is complex and the ability of these viruses to produce disease and death in avian species. Importance of continued investigation of the pathobiology of both low- and HPAIV infections in wild birds which is essential in the understanding of their epidemiology and, in turn, can contribute to the design and implementation of preventive and control measures to protect the health of humans and animals. The spread of swine flu around the world was classed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a global pandemic. After 6 July 2009, the WHO stopped producing detailed worldwide figures. The WHO GISRS laboratories tested more than 39 635 specimens. 2980 were positive for influenza viruses, of which 1044 (35%) were typed as influenza A and 1936 (65%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 359 (46.6%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 412 (53.4%) were influenza A(H3N2). Of the characterized B viruses, 155 (95.1%) belonged to the B-Yamagata lineage and 8 (4.9%) to the B-Victoria lineage. Public awareness of the human health risks of zoonotic infections has grown in recent years. Currently, concern of H5N1 flu transmission from migratory bird populations has increased with foci of fatal human cases. This comes on the heels of other major zoonotic viral epidemics in the last decade.


Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. Most people who get influenza will recover in a few days to less than two weeks, but some people will develop complications (such as pneumonia) which are life-threatening and result in death.The high morbidity and mortality associated with both pandemic and seasonal influenza and the anticipation for future influenza pandemics puts influenza front and center in infectious disease research. Vaccine efficacy refers to studies of vaccine effects that occur under randomized, controlled conditions, where individuals are randomly assigned to either a group that is given influenza vaccine or to a second group that is not given influenza vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness is a measure of how well influenza vaccines work to protect against influenza infection and illness when they are used in routine circumstances in the community, and not specifically in a RCT. The presence of chronic medical conditions may also affect the effectiveness of influenza vaccines.

  • Avian flu
  • Swine flu
  • Ebola
  • Influenza like illeness
  • Zoonotic infection
  • Interaction between Influenza and Pneumococcal
  • Virus-host interaction and co-infection
  • Chest infection and other respiratory infection along with flu
  • Travel medicine

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Flu Clinical Studies & Case Reports Conference Speakers