Flu/ Influenza Vaccines And Vaccination

Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or jabs, are vaccines that protect against influenza. A new version of the vaccine is developed twice a year as the influenza virus rapidly changes. While their effectiveness varies from year to year, most provide modest to high protection against influenza. The World Health Organization (WHO) and  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control recommends yearly vaccination for nearly all people over the age of six months, especially those at high risk.

Immune responses to viral infections involve a complex orchestration between innate signals and adaptive responses of specific T and B cells. Advances in T-Cell Therapies and several antiviral compounds have been developed against influenza virus to interfere with specific events in the replication cycle. Among them, the inhibitors of viral uncoating (amantadine), nucleoside inhibitors (ribavirin), viral transcription and neuraminidase inhibitors (zanamivir and oseltamivir) are reported as examples of traditional virus-based antiviral strategies. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-influenza drugs that target general cell signaling pathways essential for viral replication, irrespective to the specific origin of the virus, would decrease the emergence of drug resistance and increase the effectiveness towards different strains of influenza virus. The genome of an influenza virus particle is encased in a capsid that consists of protein. The influenza A capsid contains the antigenic glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). For genetic analysis Genome sequencing is used which is the process that determines the order, or sequence, of the nucleotides in each of the genes present in the virus’s genome. There are Next Generation Sequencing and Sanger reaction available methods for genome sequencing. Influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic variation, which requires the annual reformulation of trivalent influenza vaccines, making influenza unique among pathogens for which vaccines have been developed. Reverse genetics techniques are also proving to be important for the development of pandemic influenza vaccines, because the technology provides a means to modify genes to remove virulence determinants found in highly pathogenic avian strains.

  • Vaccine innovation and human health
  • Effectiveness of multivalent vaccines
  • Developing a universal flu vaccine
  • Success and challenges of vaccines on infants, children, pregnant women and elderly patient
  • Various influenza vaccine delivery technologies

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