Flu/ Influenza vaccines : Current And Novel Approach

The first and foremost efforts to develop influenza vaccines were initiated soon after influenza A and B viruses were identified as the etiologic agents of clinical influenza. The United States in 1945 has approved the first commercial vaccines using whole-inactivated influenza virus for use. The flu vaccine is an annual vaccination using a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus that is specific for a given year. Risk management and effectiveness of vaccines are important for public health.

Flu is a contagious acute self-limiting infection caused by influenza A and B viruses. It is classically characterised by systemic symptoms, with fever, chills, headache, myalgia, malaise and anorexia, with respiratory symptoms such as cough, pharyngitis and rhinorrhoea. A number of different laboratory diagnostic tests can be used for detecting the presence of influenza viruses in respiratory specimens, including direct antigen detection tests, virus isolation in cell culture, or detection of influenza-specific RNA by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR).  These tests differ in their sensitivity and specificity in detecting influenza viruses,  the amount of time needed from specimen collection until results are available, and the tests’ ability to distinguish between different influenza virus types (A versus B) and influenza A subtypes (e.g. novel H1N1 versus seasonal H1N1 versus seasonal H3N2 viruses). The choice of test depends on factors such as the duration of symptoms, prevalence of influenza in the community, the clinical setting and proximity to a laboratory. Prompt diagnosis is important because antiviral therapy is most efficacious when commenced in the first 48 hours of illness.

  • Genetic and evolution of virus and host
  • Risk management and effectiveness of vaccines
  • Targeting strategies for influenza vaccines
  • Adjuvants and their improvement issues
  • Clinical trails of influenza based vaccines

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