Fundamentals and classification in organic chemistry

Organic molecules contain carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are covalently bonded to other atoms, and various chains of carbon atoms can be found in most every molecule.carbon has four valence electrons, and therefore will make four bonds in accordance with the octet rule. All non-carbon-to-carbon bonds will be assumed to be carbon-hydrogen bonds, as hydrogen atoms are the most commonly found attached atom. Hydrogen has one valence electron, and will make one covalent bond. The carbon atom is capable of making single, double, and triple bonds, as well as bonding with oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, or bromine. Oxygen has six valence electrons, and will make two covalent bonds. A single bond and a double bond are both possible for oxygen atoms. Nitrogen has five valence electrons, and will make three covalent bonds. Single, double, and triple bonds are all possibilities for nitrogen atoms. Chlorine and bromine each have seven valence electrons, and will make one covalent bond.

The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Ideally, every possible organic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous structural formula can be created. The concept of functional groups is central in organic chemistry, both as a means to classify structures and for predicting properties. A functional group is a molecular module, and the reactivity of that functional group is assumed, within limits, to be the same in a variety of molecules. 

  • Nomenclature of new compounds
  • Polymers and fullerenes
  • Types and characterization of organic compounds
  • Characterization of compounds in organic chemistry
  • Functional groups
  • Aliphatic compounds and aromatic compounds
  • Heterocyclic compounds

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