Gene Expression Profiling

Gene expression profiling simultaneously compares the expression levels of many genes between two or more sample types. This analysis can help scientists identify the molecular basis for phenotypic differences and select gene expression targets for in-depth study using other technologies. Gene expression profiling provides valuable insight into the role of differential gene expression in normal biological and disease processes. There are many techniques used for gene expression profiling. One of the major techniques for expression profiling includes Measuring Relative Activity by SAGE and Super SAGE, where SAGE stands for serial analysis of gene expression technology for the analysis of expressed genes.  The other technique includes Gene annotation which provides functional and other information, for example the location of each gene within a particular chromosome. Some functional annotations are more reliable than others; some are absent. Gene annotation databases change regularly, and various databases refer to the same protein by different names, reflecting a changing understanding of protein function. Having identified some set of regulated genes, the next step in expression profiling involves looking for patterns within the regulated set for categorizing regulated genes. This can be done by finding similarities between the functioning of the proteins produced from different cell. Further categorization is done on the basis of relationship between two genes and their products by finding patterns among regulated genes. This is analysed by the fact that what these regulated genes actually are and what they do. Compared to Proteomics, the human genome contains on the order of 25,000 genes which work in concert to produce on the order of 1,000,000 distinct proteins. Knowledge of the precise proteins a cell makes, is more relevant than knowing how much messenger RNA is made from each gene, gene expression profiling provides the most global picture possible in a single experiment.

Gene Expression profiling has a growing research being utilized by major companies like Wafergen Biosystems, Afymetrix, SBI, Luminex, Asper Biotech, Genentech San Francisco to name a few. The research has been supported as a course by more than 470 universities and gains international funding too.

 

  • SAGE and SuperSAGE
  • Gene annotation
  • Categorizing Regulated Genes
  • Finding Patterns among Regulated Genes
  • Comparison to Proteomics

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