Genome Evolution

Genome evolution is the process by which a genome changes in structure over time, through mutation, horizontal gene transfer, and sexual reproduction. The study of genome evolution involves multiple fields including structural analysis of the genome, genomic parasites, gene and ancient genome duplications, polyploidy, and comparative genomics.

Darwin recognized the processes of speciation and the extinctions of species. We now understand many of the genome-scale processes occurring during evolution involving mutations, amplification, loss or homogenization of sequences; rearrangement, fusion and fission of chromosomes; and horizontal transfer of genes or genomes through polyploidy or other mechanisms. DNA sequence information, combined with appropriate informatic tools and experimental approaches including generation of synthetic hybrids, comparison of genotypes across environments, and modelling of genomic responses, is now letting us link genome behaviour with its consequences. The understanding of genome evolution will be of critical value both for conservation of the biodiversity of the plant kingdom and addressing the challenges of breeding new and more sustainable crops to feed the human population.

A gene is the entire nucleic acid sequence that is necessary for the controlled production of its final product (RNA or Protein). The basic unit of genome architecture is gene these correspond to specific regions in chromosomes (genome), these regions are further organized exons/introns, transcripts, promoter regions, Repetitive regions, Telomeres, centromeres, CpG Islands. In Prokaryotic most bacterial genomes are carried in one circular chromosome Stable replication requires one replication origin (ORI) The Genome is packed with polyamines (stabilizing proteins), In Eukaryotic: The genome is distributed over several linear chromosomes Stable replication occurs from several replication origins within each chromosome, and additionally requires centromeres, Telomeres.

Related Confernces:

Genome Architecture in Cell Fate & Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China- Conference on Genome Architecture, ICTP, Trieste, Italy- The Genomics of Common Diseases, Cambridge, UK- Plant Genomes & Biotechnology: From Genes to Networks, NY, USA- Rat Genomics & Models, NY, USA- CSHL meeting: Genome Informatics, NY, USA- Maintenance of Genome Stability 2016, Panama- Central America- 18th International Conference on Quantitative Genetics and Genomics, London, UK- At the intersection of DNA replication and genome maintenance: from mechanisms to therapy, Trieste, Italy- Abcam Conference "Mechanisms of Recombination", Alicanta, Spain.

  • Changes in genome size and structure
  • Gene duplication
  • Genome speciation
  • Prokaryotic & eukaryotic genomes
  • Complex genome
  • Stem cell formation

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Genome Evolution Conference Speakers