Global Market for Influenza Vaccine Manufactures

The majority of the currently available licensed seasonal influenza vaccines are prepared using eggs for the following vaccine types. However, some manufacturers employ cell culture for the production of their vaccines.

  • Whole virus vaccines consisting of inactivated viruses.
  • Split virus vaccines consisting of inactivated virus particles disrupted by detergent treatment.
  • Subunit or surface antigen vaccines consisting essentially of purified hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from which other virus components have been removed.
  • Live attenuated (cold-adapted) virus vaccines consisting of weakened (non-pathogenic) whole virus.

To produce the split virus and subunit vaccines the whole virus is subjected to disruption with a surfactant, which solubilizes the viral membrane. For subunit vaccines the internal subviral core of the virus is separated from the surface proteins on the basis of their differing sedimentation rates. With split virus vaccines, the choice and use of surfactant ensures that the subviral core itself is disassembled.

There are three types of inactivated vaccines, the whole virus vaccines, split virus vaccines, and subunit vaccines. In split virus vaccines, the virus has been disrupted by a detergent. In subunit vaccines, HA and NA have been further purified by removal of other viral components. Some formulations include adjuvants and most multidose vials contain the preservative thiomersal. Live, attenuated influenza vaccines have been based on a temperature-sensitive variant vaccine virus strains that replicate well in the nasopharynx but poorly in the lower respiratory tract.

New Vaccine techniques like in vitro gene-manipulation have opened up new approaches to vaccine development. This has rapidly grown into an exciting area of Vaccines against infectious diseases research in both academic and industrial laboratories. There are a number of scientific challenges which require multidisciplinary teams to solve problems in developing new immunogens. This has challenged our existing knowledge about protein structure and conformation, microbial pathogenicity and the immune system. Recombinant-DNA techniques are invaluable as tools of analysis and antigen production. The surface of micro-organisms can also be minutely explored with the use of synthetic peptides and monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless, these new technologies do not allow us to circumvent the need for detailed understanding of pathogens and the disease process. A lot of researches are going on improving/developing new vaccines and administration of vaccines

  • Vaccine R&D development
  • Cost effectiveness of immunizations
  • Improving vaccine uptake in all age groups
  • Enterpreneurship in vacccine development
  • Global influenza market : Case studies
  • Multiple antigenic presenting system to delope vaccines
  • Economic and epidemiological impacts of influenza vaccine

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