Graphene

Graphene is a blend of graphite and the suffix -ene, named by Hanns-Peter Boehm, who described single-layer carbon foils in the year 1962. The term graphene first appeared in 1987 to describe single sheets of graphite as a constituent of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs). Theoretically GIC is a crystalline salt of the intercalant and graphene. The term was also used in early descriptions of carbon nanotubes, as well as for epitaxial graphene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Graphene is considered an "infinite alternant" (only six-member carbon ring) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.  The toxicity of graphene has been extensively debated in the literature. The most comprehensive review on graphene toxicity summarized the in vitro, in vivo, antimicrobial and environmental effects and highlights the various mechanisms of graphene toxicity. The toxicity of graphene is dependent on factors such as shape, size, purity, post-production processing steps, oxidative state, functional groups, dispersion state, synthesis methods, route, dose of administration and exposure times. 

Our world has many Super-materials. Ceramics, aerogels, elastomers are a few of them. But one material overshadows them all, earning its discoverers a Nobel Prize and defining the upper limit for scientific hype and excitement. This is expected to revolutionize processing, power storage, even space exploration. But it has yet to actually achieve much of anything. It is called graphene.  This is the basic structural element of other allotropes, that include graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. It can be regarded as a permanently large aromatic molecule, the highest instance of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Graphene has many uncommon properties. It is about 200 times stronger than the strongest steel. It very competently conducts heat and electricity and is nearly crystal clear. Graphene shows a large and inherent diamagnetism, greater than graphite and can be levitated by neodymium magnets. Graphene is a transparent and flexible conductor that holds promise for various material/device applications, including solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LED), touch panels and smart windows or phones. Graphene and its derivatives are the latest materials to be designed for drug and gene delivery applications, including targeted delivery. Graphene′s unique electrochemical properties include a wide electrochemical window, low-charge transfer resistance, well-defined redox peaks, and rapid electron transfer kinetics.

  • Structural and functional attributes of graphene
  • Synthesis of graphene
  • Field emission and graphene
  • Quantum transport in graphene based materials
  • Doping of graphene
  • Nanostructured graphene
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Electronic and photonic applications

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